We explored widely the anodization of metals e.g. Ti in
electrolytes based on molten ortho-phosphoric acid (o-H3PO4) to
produce one-dimensional (1D) oxide nanostructures. Such
molten electrolytes enable under optimized electrochemical
conditions the growth of arrays of semiconductive metal oxide
nanocavity[1,2] or nanotubular structures[3,4] featuring an
unprecedented degree of self-ordering. The oxide nanocavity
morphology can be fully adjusted in terms of length, opening
diameter and wall thickness. Such defined and ordered oxide
morphology was found crucial to design functional metal/oxide
nanostructured platforms by templated dewetting, i.e. to form
arrays of particle-in-cavity for advanced photocatalysis.[1,2,5]
Some literature citations:
 J. E. Yoo, K. Lee, M. Altomare, E. Selli, P. Schmuki, Angew. Chemie Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 7514.
 M. Altomare, N. T. Nguyen, P. Schmuki, Chem. Sci. 2016, 7, 6865.
 M. Altomare, O. Pfoch, A. Tighineanu, R. Kirchgeorg, K. Lee, E. Selli, P. Schmuki, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 5646.
 M. Altomare, G. Cha, P. Schmuki, Electrochim. Acta 2020, 344, 136158.
 N. T. Nguyen, M. Altomare, J. Yoo, P. Schmuki, Adv. Mater. 2015, 27, 3208.